Wednesday, December 30, 2009

ANSWERS TO BOARD EXAM REVIEWER: POWER ELEMENTS








Here's the answers to the questions posted on the last article.
1. The measure of how effective a boiler is in transferring heat from furnace to the water and steam.
Answer: C. Boiler efficiency

2. A heat exchanger used to remove dissolved air in water?
Answer:b. Deaerator

3. A state of water where the quantity of steam and liquid water is indistinguishable.
Answer: a. Critical point
Reference: p.62, Thermodynamics 6th.Ed., Faires and Simmang

Friday, December 25, 2009

BOARD EXAM REVIEWER: POWER ELEMENTS






I have here some of the most frequently appearing types of "elements" on the subject of power and industrial plant engineering. Answers will be provided after a week.
These questions were based on previous board examination and was reworded and modified but it carries the same thought as the actual questions.


Instruction: Choose the BEST answer.

1. The measure of how effective a boiler is in transferring heat from furnace to the water and steam.
A. Coefficient of heat transfer
B. Boiler conductivity
C. Boiler efficiency
D. Furnace efficiency

2. A heat exchanger used to remove dissolved air in water?
a. Condenser
b. Deaerator
c. Reheater
d. Boiler

3. A state of water where the quantity of steam and liquid water is indistinguishable.
a. Critical point
b. Absolute zero
c. Boiling point
d. Freezing point

4. A power plant that harness energy from the difference in temperature between the depths of the ocean.
a. OTEC
b. Geothermal plant
c. Hydroelectric plant
d. Wave power plant


5. The most efficient thermal cycle.
a. Rankine cycle
b. Otto Cycle
c. Diesel Cycle
d. Carnot Cycle

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

SOLUTION TO MECHANICAL BOARD EXAM PROBLEMS: Power Set-1






Here are the solutions to board problems given at Power Subject Set-1. If you do not understand anything, feel free to write a comment voicing out your concern. I'm still looking for better ways to present my solution. I still don't know how to present equations and mathematical symbols with blogger. Please bear with me.

1. An automobile tire is inflated to 32psig pressure at 50 degree F. After being driven, the temperature rises to 75 degree F. Determine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remains constant. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)

Solution:
Since volume is constant, use Charles’ Law on constant volume processes.
P1/T1=P2/T2
Note: P and T should be absolute.

(32+14.7)/ (50+460) =P2/ (75+460)

P2=48.99 psia

Converting back to gage pressure,

P2g=48.99-14.7

P2g=34.29 psig


2. Four hundred cubic centimeters of gas at a pressure of 740 mmHg absolute and temperature of 18 degree C undergoes a process until the pressure and temperature becomes 760 mmHg absolute and 0 degrees C respectively. Calculate the final volume of the gas. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)

Since all the parameters (temperature, pressure and volume) changes, use combined gas law

PV/T=constant

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

(740)(400)/(18+273)=(760)V2/(0+273)

V2=365.3 cc

3. A single acting air compressor with a clearance of 6% took air at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 85 degrees F, discharges it at a pressure of 85 psia. Assuming that the compression is isentropic, find the piston displacement per cycle and the air power (hp) of the compressor if the RPM is 750. (Mechanical Engineering Board Exam 1978)
(I haven't got this correct yet, LOL)

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

IMPORTANT: Email Subscriptions






I'm very glad about the response of the visitors of this blog. In it's 7th Month now, Mechanical Engineering Blog Site already have 96 email subscription requests! This can only mean one thing--that the visitors are interested on the future contents of this site. The sad news though is that only 64 out of those 96 subscriptions (67 percent) are active. The remaining 32 requests are in the state of "pending confirmation".



To be able to get an email notification from this website, you need to ACTIVATE your subscription. To do this, you have to go to your email address (that you used to subscribe) and open the message from FeedBurner. Click on the link provided to verify your subscription. That email is automatically sent to your inboxes immediately after your subscription. If you cannot find it there, check your spam folders.



Question: What if I already deleted the email without activating my account?
Answer: The BEST thing you can do is to resubscribe. Enter again your email address on the subscription form found at the top portion of this blog OR click the orange envelope below.
Subscribe via Email

Sunday, December 6, 2009

PAST BOARD EXAM QUESTION:POWER SET-I (ANSWERS)






Below are the answers to the question on the POWER Set-I Questions taken from prevous engineering board examination.

1. An automobile tire is inflated to 32psig pressure at 50 degree F. After being driven, the temperature rises to 75 degree F. Determine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remains constant. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)
a. 34.3psig



2. Four hundred cubic centimeters of gas at a pressure of 740 mmHg absolute and temperature of 18 degree C undergoes a process until the pressure and temperature becomes 760 mmHg absolute and 0 degrees C respectively. Calculate the final volume of the gas. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)
c. 365 cc

Monday, November 30, 2009

PAST BOARD EXAM QUESTIONS: POWER SET-1






I have put here part of my compilation of past board examination on the subject Industrial and Power Plant Engineering. These questions are modified for the purpose of improvement. Answers (and probably solutions) will be posted here soon.

1. An automobile tire is inflated to 32psig pressure at 50 degree F. After being driven, the temperature rises to 75 degree F. Determine the final gage pressure assuming the volume remains constant. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)
a. 34.3psig
b. 49 psig
c. 19.6 psig
d. 32.3 psig




2. Four hundred cubic centimeters of gas at a pressure of 740 mmHg absolute and temperature of 18 degree C undergoes a process until the pressure and temperature becomes 760 mmHg absolute and 0 degrees C respectively. Calculate the final volume of the gas. (Electrical Engineering Board Exam Problem)
a. 351 cc
b. 371 cc
c. 365 cc
d. 375 cc

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

PAST MECHANICAL BOARD EXAM QUESTION: Machine Design Set-1 (solutions and answers)






The following are the solutions and answers to MODIFIED PAST MECHANICAL BOARD EXAM QUESTION: Machine Design Set-1 posted on this blog last Saturday, November 14, 2009.




Again, I want to stress out that most of the questions here are modified from its original form for the purpose of improving the question.

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 1
A 4 inches diameter short shaft carrying 2 pulleys close to the bearings transmits how much horsepower if the shaft makes 120 rpm.

A.200HP               B. 199 HP

C.198 HP              D. 202 HP

P = (D3N )/38 -- for mula for short shafts from PSME code

P = (4)3(120)/38

P= 202 HP

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 2
An instrument that measures the hardness of the work piece in terms of elasticity.

a. Durometer

b. Scleroscope

c. Mohs's Scale

d. Brinell Tester

Source: Machinery’s Handbook

Monday, November 16, 2009

Free Software For Mechanical Engineers






In line with the goal of to share informations that can help our fellow mechanical engineers, I wrote this article about free softwares that can be very useful.




Free CAD softwares

Co-Create
It was first developed by Hewlett-Packard Mechanical Design Division and acquired by Parametric Technology Corporation (maker of Pro-Engineering Software) on late 2007. It offers FREE personal edition that can be downloaded on its website. All you have to do is to register with a valid email address.
Link to the download page.

Alibre
Alibre Inc., offers a FREE light version of their commercial CAD software. Just sign-up using a valid email adress to download the installer.
Link to download page.

T-Flex
Top Systems, a Russian developer of CAD/CAD/CAE/PDM solutions offers a student version of their commercial CAD package T-Flex for FREE.
Link to Download page.




Mind Mapping software

Free Mind
Sourceforge, an organization promoting open-source sofwares created Freemind, a mind mapping software. This can be used for planning, organizing, and root-cause analysis. This software is
written in Java so you'll need to install Java before it works.
Link to Download page.

Saturday, November 14, 2009

PAST MECHANICAL BOARD EXAM QUESTION: Machine Design Set-1






The questions below are BASED on the past board examinations given by the board of mechanical engineering. Also, please take note that some of the questions are intentionally varied for the purpose of improving them. Answers (and probably the solutions) will be given a few days after.



Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 1
A 4 inches diameter short shaft carrying 2 pulleys close to the bearings transmits how much horsepower if the shaft makes 120 rpm.
A.200HP             B. 199 HP
C.198 HP            D. 202 HP

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 2
An instrument that measures the hardness of the workpiece in terms of elasticity.
a. Durometer
b. Scleroscope
c. Mohs's Scale
d. Brinell Tester

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 3
A cylindrical tank with 15 in inside diameter contains oxygen gas at 3000 psi. Calculate the required wall thickness in (mm) under stress of 25,000 psi.
A.11.44mm               B. 22.86mm
C.15.36mm               D. 15.86mm

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 4
The minimum clearance allowed for meshing spur gears with a circular pitch of 0.1571 and diametral pitch of 20. The spur gear have 25 teeth.
A. 0.003578             B. 0.007855
C. 0.007558             D. 0.007585

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 5
SAE steel that responds to heat treatment:
A.SAE 1060                  B.SAE 1030
C.SAE 1117                  D.SAE 1020

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 6
The differential of the shear equation is which one of the following:
A. load of the beam                         B. slope of the elastic curve
C. bending moment of the beam       D. tensile strength of the beam

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 7
To reduce cost in the manufacturing of large worm gears the materials to utilize:
A. alloyed aluminum rim with cast iron spider
B. bronze rim with cast steel spider
C. cast iron rim with bronze spider
D. all of these



Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 8
The _____ test is used for determining the hardness of metallic materials consists in applying a known load to the surface of the material to be tested through a hardened steel ball of known diameter.
a. Shore
b. Vicker
c. Brinell
d. Rockwell

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 9
It is hardening treatment whereby a cast metal is being heated to a very temperature then suddenly subjected to rapid cooling to improve hardenability or resistance is called:
A. normalizing                B. quenching
C. tempering                  D. annealing

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 10
Determine the estimated weight of an A-36 steel plates size 3/16 x 5 x 15.
A. 515 lbs               B. 625 lbs
C. 485 lbs               D. 575 lbs

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 11
Split pulley or pulley made of separate section bolted together at the rim, the maximum speed should be limited to about _____% of the maximum speed of solid pulley,
A. 45 to 50%                    B. 65 to 70%
C. 55 to 60%                    D. 80 to 90%

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 12
Killed steel is very much associated with :
A. manganese            B. phosphorous
C. sulphur                  D. silicon

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 13
_____is a measure of the ease with which a crack progresses through a material from an existing notch, crack, or sharp corner.
A. Creep Rate
B. Brittleness
C. Notch sensitivity
D. Moh's Scale

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 14
Calculate the estimated weight of a steel plate size 1/4 x 5 x 8.
A. 480 kg                     C. 100 kg
B. 186 kg                     D. 409 kg

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 15
A type of welding whereby a wire or powder from the nozzle of a spray gun is fuse gas flame, arc or plasma jet and the molten particles are projected in form of a spray by means of compressed air or gas.
A. electro-slug building               B. plasma-arc welding
C. electro-beam welding            D. metal spray welding

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 16
Heating of metal above the critical temperature and then cooling slowly usually furnace to reduce the hardness and improve the machinability is called:
A. normalizing                 B. tempering
C. annealing                    D. quenching

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 17
Accident prevention is:
A. an association of employers, organization and individuals
B. a job of a safety engineer
C. the foreman's responsibility just as much as production
D. the responsibility of top management

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 18
Major component of bronze casting :
A. copper                   B. zinc
C. manganese             D. lead

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 19
Commonly utilized/cheapest shaft material available in the market with carbon cont 0.28 to 0.34% C.
A. SAE 4140              B. SAE 1030
C. SAE 1117              D. SAE 4130

Past Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Question Number 20
Continuing changes in dimensions of a stressed material over time is called ____.
A. Aging
B. Embrittlement
C. Creep
D. Deformation

It is the mission of this blog to help the students as well as professional mechanical engineers by providing information they sorely needed. The author would be very thankful if you let him know whatever mistake you may found in this blog.

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Monday, November 9, 2009

ME LAWS: REPUBLIC ACT 8495 Part 5 (Article V)






ARTICLE V

PENAL AND CONCLUDING PROVISIONS

Sec. 42. Penalties. – In addition to the administrative sanctions imposed under this Act any person who violates any of the provisions of this Act and its rules and regulations shall, upon conviction be penalized by a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) nor more than Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00), or imprisonment of not less than six (6) months nor more than three (3) years, or both fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court.

Section 43. Implementing Rules and Regulations. – The Board shall formulate and issue the implementing rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Act.




Section 44. Funding Provisions. – Such sums may be necessary to carry out provisions of this Act shall be included in the General Appropriations Act of the year following its enactment into law and thereafter.


Section 45. Separability Clause. – If any section or portion of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional or invalid, the same shall not invalidate all other sections or portions not affected thereby.


Section 46. Repealing Clause. – Commonwealth Act No. 294, as amended by Republic Act No. 5336, is hereby repealed and all other laws, parts of law, orders, ordinances, or regulations relative to the practice of mechanical engineering which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.


Section 47. Transitory Provisions. – (a) Mechanical Plant Engineers possessing valid certificates of registration issued under Commonwealth Act No. 294 with BSME degree shall, after the approval of this Act, register and be issued certificates as professional mechanical engineers to replace their original certificate of registration upon payment of the required fees.

(b)Faculty Members currently teaching mechanical engineering professional subjects in universities, colleges, institutes or schools shall not be allowed to continue teaching after five (5) years from the approval of this Act, unless they are or have become Professional Mechanical Engineers or at least Registered Mechanical Engineers with a Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering from duly recognized and accredited universities, colleges, institutes or schools.

(c)The present Board shall continue to function in the interim until such time as the new Board shall be constituted.


Section 48. Effectivity Clause. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or a major daily newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines, whichever is earlier.

Approved:


JOSE DE VENECIA, JR.                                    
Speaker of the House of Representatives

NEPTALI A. GONZALES
President of the Senate


This Act, which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 1793 and House Bill No. 9806 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 3, 1998 and January 28, 1998, respectively.

ROBERTO P. NAZARENO
Secretary General House of Representatives

                                 
HEZEL P. GACUTAN
Secretary of the Senate


Approved:

FIDEL V. RAMOS
President of the Philippines

Approved: February 12, 1998

Friday, November 6, 2009

ME LAWS: REPUBLIC ACT 8495 Part 4 (Article IV)






ARTICLE IV
PRACTICE OF THE PROFESSION
Section 33. Field of Action Authorized for Each Category: Prohibition. – It shall be unlawful for any person, unless authorized under this Act:







(a) to be in responsible charge of the preparation of plans, designs, investigations, valuation, technical reports, specifications, project studies or estimates or to be in performance of other professional mechanical engineering activities unless he is a duly licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer.

(b) to teach professional subjects in mechanical engineering course unless he is a duly licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer, or a Master's degree, or Doctorate degree holder in mechanical engineering.

(c) to be in responsible charge of the construction, erection, installation, alteration, or of the performance of a mechanical engineering service in connection with the manufacture, sale, supply or distribution of any mechanical works, project or plant either for himself or for other, unless he is a duly registered Professional Mechanical Engineer or Mechanical Engineer.

(d) to operate, tend or maintain, or be in-charge of the operation, tending, or maintenance of any mechanical works, projects, plant of 100 kw., or more but not more than 300 kw unless he is a duly licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer or Certified Plant Mechanic.

(e) to operate, tend, or maintain, or be in-charge of the operation, tending, or maintenance of any mechanical equipment, machinery or process for any mechanical works, projects or plants of 300 kilowatts or above but not more than 2000 kw unless he is a duly licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer or Mechanical Engineer.

(f) to operate, tend or maintain, or to be in charge of the operation, tending or maintenance of any mechanical equipment, machinery process for any mechanical works, projects or plants of over 2000 kw unless he is a duly licensed Professional Mechanical Engineer.






Section 34. Personnel Required in Mechanical Plant. – Every mechanical work project or plant in operation shall have not less than the following complement of resident licensed professional mechanical engineer, mechanical engineer or certified plant mechanic:















(a) 100 kw or over but not more than 300 kw: one (1) certified plant mechanic, or more mechanical engineer or one (1) professional mechanic engineer: Provided, That every mechanical work, project, or plant in this category operating in more than one shift every twenty-four hours, shall have in addition to the minimum personnel herein required, one (1) certified plant mechanical, or one (1) mechanical engineer, or one (1) professional mechanical engineer in-charge of each and every additional shift.

(b) 300 kw or over, but not more than 2000 kw: one (1) mechanical engineer or one (1) professional mechanical engineer or one (1) professional mechanical engineer: Provided, That every mechanical work, project, or plant in this category operating in more than one shift every twenty-four (24) hours shall have, in addition to the minimum personnel herein required at least one (1) mechanical engineer, or one (1) professional mechanical engineer in-charge of each and every additional shift.

(c) Over 2000 kw: one (1) professional mechanical engineer: Provided, That every mechanical work, project or plant in this category operating in more than one shift every twenty-four (24) hours shall have, in addition to the minimum personnel herein required at least one (1) professional mechanical engineer in-charge of each and every additional shift.








Section 35. Preparation of Plans and Supervision of Construction by Licensed Engineers Required. – It shall be unlawful for any person to order or otherwise cause the fabrication, construction, erection, installation or alteration of any mechanical equipment, machinery or process for any mechanical works, projects, or plants, unless the designs, plans, layouts or specifications have been prepared by or under the responsible charge of, and duly signed and sealed by a Professional Mechanical Engineer.

Likewise, proposals and quotations for the supply and fabrication of mechanical equipment, works, projects, plants, mechanical pollution abatement systems, mechanical fire protection systems, pressurized pipes with a working pressure of not less than 70 kpa., shall be duly signed and sealed by a Professional Mechanical Engineer.


Section 36. Practice Not Allowed for Firms and Corporations. – The practice of mechanical engineering is a professional service, admission to which shall be determined upon the basis of an individual's personal qualifications.

No firm, company partnership, association or corporation may be registered or licensed as such for the practice of mechanical engineering: Provided, however, That persons properly registered and licensed as mechanical engineers may form and obtain registration with Security and Exchange Commission of a firm, partnership or association using the term "Mechanical Engineers", and or "Architect and Mechanical Engineers" but nobody shall be a member, partner or associate unless he is a duly registered and licensed mechanical engineer, and the members who are mechanical engineers shall only render work and services proper for mechanical engineers as defined in this Act.


Section 37. Posting of Certificates. – The owner, manager, or other person in-charge of any mechanical works, projects, or plants of one hundred (100) kw or more, of a firm, co-partnership, corporation or joint-stock association, shall post or cause to be posted in a conspicuous place within such plant of business, the original certificate of registration of the engineer or engineers and of the certified plant mechanic/s employed in such plant, in a frame protected by transparent glass or its equivalent.


Section 38. Roster of Engineers and Mechanics. – A roster showing the names and place of business of all registered professional mechanical engineers, mechanical engineers and certified plant mechanics, shall be prepared by the commission which shall be made available to any interested parties upon formal written request.


Section 39. Foreign Reciprocity. – No foreign mechanical engineer or mechanic shall be allowed to practice mechanical engineering or be given a certificate of registration or be entitled to any of the privileges under this Act unless he can prove in the manner provided by the rules of Court or by specific provisions of law or regulations, that the country of which he is a subject or citizen in the spirit of reciprocity, permits Filipino mechanical engineers and/or mechanics to practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as the subject or citizens of such country or state.



Section 40. Enforcement of the Act by the Officers of the Law. – The Professional Regulation Commission shall be the enforcement agency of the Board. As such, the Commission shall implement the concerned provisions of this Act, enforce its implementing rules and regulations as adopted by the Board, conduct investigations on complaints including violations of the Code of Conduct of the profession and prosecute when so warranted.

It shall be the duty of all duly constituted authorities through the officers of the law of the national government, or any provincial, city, or municipal government or any political subdivision thereof, to enforce the provisions of this act and to prosecute any person violating the same.


Section 41. Qualification Requirements. – In a government or private institution where a position requires a master's degree holder, a holder of professional mechanical engineer license shall be eligible for the position. Likewise, where a position requires a professional mechanical engineer's license, a holder of a master's or doctorate degree in mechanical engineering, with a registered mechanical engineer's license shall be considered for the position.

Thursday, November 5, 2009

ME LAWS: REPUBLIC ACT 8495 Part 3 (Article III)






ARTICLE III
EXAMINATION, REGISTRATION AND LICENSE

Sec. 12. Examination Required. – All applicants for registration for the practice of mechanical engineering shall be required to undergo and pass a written technical examination as provided for in this Act.




Section 13. Categories. – Certificates of registration for the practice of mechanical engineering shall be of three (3) categories and in order of rank as follows:

(a) Professional Mechanical Engineer;

(b) Mechanical Engineer; and

(c) Certified Plant Mechanic.

Section 14. Qualification of Applicants for Professional Mechanical Engineer. – Any applicant to the Professional mechanical engineering examination must, at the time of filing of his application, establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:

(a) He is a citizen of the Philippines;

(b) He must not have been convicted by a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude;

(c) He has a valid certificate of registration and he is a registered mechanical engineer and a holder of a valid professional license;

(d) He has graduated from an engineering school or college of recognized standing, after completing an approved course in mechanical engineering;

(e) He has specific record of a total of four (4) years or more of active mechanical engineering practice, reckoned from time he is registered a mechanical engineering practice; and

(f) He is competent to practice, as attested to by at least two (2) professional mechanical engineers.

Section 15. Qualifications of Applicants for Mechanical Engineer. – Any person applying for examination and for a Certificate of Registration as Mechanical Engineer shall, prior to admission to the examinations, establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:

(a) He is a citizen of the Philippines;

(b) He must not have been convicted by a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude;

(c) He holds the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from a university, school, college, academy, or institute duly constituted and recognized as such by the government.

Section 16. Qualifications of Applicants for Certified Plant Mechanic. – Any person applying for examination for certificate of registration as Certified Plant Mechanic shall establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:

(a) He must not have been convicted by a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude;

(b) He has graduated from a vocational or trade school duly recognized by the government after completing an approved course of not less than two (2) years in stationary or power plant engineering or any mechanical plant operation; and

(c) He has specific record of an additional one (1) year or more of active practice in mechanical plant operation of such character as indicated in an affidavit of a registered professional mechanical engineer and, likewise establish to the satisfaction of the Board, that the applicant is competent to undertake the operation, tending and maintenance of mechanical works, projects or plant of not less than one hundred (100) kilowatts.




Section 17. Scope of Examination. – The scope of examination and the methods of procedure shall be prescribed by the Board with special reference to the applicant's ability to perform the type of engineering work pertaining to the particular category he is to be registered in.

(a) Professional Mechanical Engineer – The granting of professional mechanical engineer Certificate of Registration shall be testimonial in nature which shall include the submission of an enumeration of the applicant's experience including the presentation of an engineering report/technical paper pertinent to his line of experience attested to by two (2) or more professional mechanical engineers in an affidavit for this purpose;

(b) Mechanical Engineer – The applicant shall pass a written examination on different subjects or group of subjects prescribed by the Board, and within the syllabi prepared by the Board with emphasis on power plant and industrial plant engineering, mathematics, engineering economics, economic analysis, laws and ethics and machine design.

The subjects in which the applicant for Mechanical Engineers shall be examined are:

1. Machine Design, Materials & Shop Practice

2. Industrial & Power Plant Engineering

3. Mathematics Engineering Economics and basic engineering sciences

(c) Certified Plant Mechanic – The examination for Certified Plant Mechanic may be written or oral on subject matters based on the following submitted statement of experience:

1. Elements of Power Plant Machinery

2. Elements of Industrial Plant Machinery; and

Subject to the approval of the Commission, the Board may amend or revise the subjects, their syllabi, passing average, and the system and procedure in the licensure examinations for the practice of mechanical engineering and the corresponding weight pursuant to implementing rules and regulations issued for this purpose.

The said subjects and their syllabi may be amended by the Board so as to conform to technological changes brought about by continuing trends in the profession.


Section 18. Ratings. – To pass the examination, a candidate for a professional mechanical engineer, a mechanical engineer, and certified plant mechanical must obtain an average of seventy percent (70%) on all subjects, with no rating below fifty percent (50%) in any of the subjects.


Section 19. Report of Ratings. – The Board should submit to the Commission, the ratings obtained by each candidate within fifteen (15) days after the examinations, unless extended for just cause.


Section 20. Re-examination. – An applicant who fails to pass the examination for the third time shall be allowed to take another examination only after the lapse of one year.


Section 21. Oath. – All successful candidates in the examination shall be required to take an oath of profession before the Board or any government official authorized to administer oaths, prior to entering upon the practice of the mechanical engineering.


Section 22. Issuance of Certificates of Registration and Professional License. – Upon payment of the registration fee as established by the Commission, the Board shall issue a certificate of registration to any applicant who has met all the requirements specified in this Act for the particular category he is registering in.


All certificates of registration shall indicate the full name of the registrants, signed by all the members of the Board and the Commission and affixed with the official seal of the Commission. The issuance of a certificate of registration by the Board to a registrant is evidence that the person named therein is entitled to all the privileges of a registered and licensed professional mechanical engineer, mechanical engineer or certified plant mechanic, as the case may be, for as long as said certificate remains valid.

A professional license bearing the registration number, date of issuance, expiry date and duly signed by the chairman of the Board, shall likewise be issued to every registrant, provided that professional fees have been paid. No person shall practice mechanical engineering in this country unless such person shall have secured a license to practice Mechanical Engineering in the manner herein provided. A licensee is entitled to practice the profession with all the privileges appurtenant thereto until the expiration of the validity of his license.

Subject to the approval of the Commission, certificates of specialty shall be issued by the Board, subject to the approval of the Commission to Professional Mechanical Engineers who have been screened and recommended by accredited mechanical engineers association. These are for specific fields in which the applicants have specialized knowledge, training and experience and have documented their competence and expertise. The Board, shall subject to the approval of the Commission, and after consultation with said association concerned, prescribe and issue the necessary guidelines for the issuance of these certificates.


Section 23. Integration and Accreditation of Mechanical Engineers. – An integrated organization of mechanical engineers shall be created and accredited by the Board of Mechanical Engineering and the Professional Regulation Commission. All persons whose names now appear in the roll of professional mechanical engineers, mechanical engineers, and certified plant mechanics under the custody of the Board and the Commission, or those who may hereafter be included therein upon registration and payment of the required fees shall automatically become members of the integrated and accredited organization of mechanical engineers. The integration of the mechanical engineering profession shall not be a bar to the formation of voluntary organization of mechanical engineers which may coexist with the integrated and accredited organization of mechanical engineers. The Board, subject to the approval by the Commission and after consultation with the existing accredited organization of mechanical and other affiliated organization of mechanical engineers and, if possible with the substantial number of the mechanical engineers who are non-organization members, shall provide the guidelines and mechanisms for the establishment and creation continued supervision of the integrated and accredited organization of mechanical engineers. The registered and licensed engineers and certified plant mechanics shall receive the benefits and privileges appurtenant to their membership in duly integrated and accredited mechanical engineering association only upon payment of the required fees and dues.


Section 24. Seal of a Professional Mechanical Engineer. – A professional mechanical engineer shall, upon registration, obtain a seal of such design prescribed by the Board, bearing the registrant's name, the certificate number and the legend "Professional Mechanical Engineer." Designs, plans, specifications, project feasibility studies, appraisals, recommendations, technical reports, proposals, and other professional documents involving mechanical equipment, works, projects or plants shall be stamped on every sheet with said seal of the registrant when filed with government authorities or when submitted or used professionally: Provided, That it shall be submitted or used professionally: Provided, that it shall be unlawful for any one to stamp or seal any document with the said seal after the certificate shall have been revoked or cancelled.


Section 25. Non-issuance of Certificate for Certain Grounds. – The Board shall not issue a certificate of registration to any person convicted by court of competent jurisdiction of any crime involving moral turpitude, or immoral or dishonorable conduct or any person of unsound mind declared by a court of competent jurisdiction, furnishing the party concerned a written statement containing the reasons for such action, which statement shall be incorporated in the records of the Board.




Section 26. Revocation and Suspension of Certificate. – The Board shall have the power, upon proper notice and hearing, to suspend or revoke any certificate of registration of any registrant for any cause specified in the preceding section, or for the use in whatever way of any fraud or deceit in obtaining a certificate of registration, or for gross negligence or incompetence or for unprofessional or dishonorable conduct and for violation of the code of ethics for mechanical engineers and certified plant mechanics: Provided, That the action of the Board shall be subject to appeal to the Commission within fifteen (15) days from notice, whose decision on the matter shall be final.


Section 27. Grounds for Suspension and Revocation of Licenses, Cancellation of Temporary/Special Permit. – The Board shall have the power, upon due notice and hearing, to revoke or suspend the license of mechanical engineers, or to cancel a temporary/special permit for any cause specified in the preceding sections, including but not limited to: the use or perpetuation of any fraud or deceit in obtaining a certificate of registration, or for competence, negligence, or for abatement of the illegal practice of mechanical engineering, violation of the provisions of this Act, its implementing Rules and Regulations and/or violations of Policies of the Board including the Code of Ethics for Mechanical Engineering: Provided, however, That such action of the Board shall be subject to appeal without prejudice to the right of the aggrieved party to apply with the proper Regional Trial Court for appropriate relief.


Section 28. Reinstatement and Replacement of the Certificates. – The Board, upon application and for reasons of equity and justice, may reinstate the validity of a revoked certificate of registration and professional license, upon payment of the required fees, at least two (2) years after revocation. A new certificate of registration to replace any certificate lost, destroyed or mutilated may be issued, subject to the rules of the Board, and upon payment of the required fee.


Section 29. Renewal of License. – The professional license shall serve as evidence that the licensee can lawfully practice his profession until the expiration of its validity. However, renewal of license can only be done upon payment of renewal fee corresponding to three (3) consecutive years.


Section 30. Vested Rights: Automatic Registration of Practicing Mechanical Engineers. – All practicing Mechanical Engineer who are registered at the time this Act takes effect, shall automatically be registered.


Section 31. Coverage of Temporary/Special Permits. – The following shall be required to secure a Temporary/Special Permit from the Board subject to the approval by the Commission.

(a) Mechanical engineers, installation, commission or guarantee engineers from other countries called in for consultation or for a specific design or installation, project not requiring more than three (3) months residence in the Philippines in a twelve (12) month period: Provided, That such engineers are legally qualified to practice mechanical engineering in their own country or state in which the requirements and qualifications for obtaining a certificate of registration are at least equal to or more than those specified in this Act as certified by the Board;

(b) Foreigners employed as technical officers, training officers or consultants in such special branches of mechanical engineering who, in the judgment of the Board, are necessary and advantageous for the country particularly in the aspects of technology transfer, may be issued temporary permits: Provided, That such engagements have satisfied conditions, as may be deemed necessary as follows:

(1) Non-availability of a mechanical engineer and/or mechanic in the country who is competent, able and willing at the time of engagement to perform the service for which the foreigner is desired for;

(2) The foreigner must have been in the prior employ of the engaging firm, or its foreign business partner, outside of the Philippines for a period of not less than one (1) year immediately preceding the date of his engagement;

(3) Any particular or specific engagement shall not be in excess of six (6) months but may be renewed once, if necessary except when such engagement is for a newly established firm in which case the period of engagement may be for a longer term but not to exceed a total term of two (2) years.


Section 32. Indication of License and Professional Tax Receipt. – The Mechanical Engineer shall be required to indicate his Professional License number, the duration of validity, including the professional tax receipt number on the documents he signs, uses or issues in connection with practice of his profession.
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Tuesday, November 3, 2009

ME LAWS: REPUBLIC ACT 8495 Part 2 (Article II)






ARTICLE II
BOARD OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Sec. 4. Creation and Composition of the Board of Mechanical Engineering. – There is hereby created a Board of Mechanical Engineering, hereinafter called the Board, to be composed of a Chairman and two (2) members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list of three (3) recommendees for each position, chosen, ranked in the order of preference and submitted by the Professional Regulation Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, from a list of five nominees submitted by the duly accredited association of mechanical engineers in the Philippines. The Board shall be organized not later than six (6) months from the effectivity of this Act.




Section 5. Qualification of Members of the Board. – A member of the Board shall, at the time of his appointment, possess the following qualifications:

(a) Natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines;

(b) Must be at least thirty-five (35) years of age;

(c) Holder of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering or its equivalent, conferred by a school, academy, college or university in the Philippines or abroad that is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED);

(d) A Professional Mechanical Engineer with a valid professional license and an active practitioner as such, for not less than ten (10) years prior to his appointment;

(e) Must not, for a period of three (3) consecutive years prior to appointment, be a member of the faculty of any, school, academy, institute, college or university where a regular course in mechanical engineering is being taught, nor have pecuniary interest in or administrative supervision over any such institutions of learning;

(f) Must not, for a period of three (3) consecutive years prior to appointment, be connected with a review center or with any group or association where review classes or lectures in preparation for the licensure examination are offered or conducted at the time of appointment; and

(g) Has never been convicted of any offense involving moral turpitude.

Section 6. Term of Office. – A member of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years from the date of his appointment or until his successor shall have been qualified and duly appointed, unless, however, that such incumbent member has been reappointed for another three (3) year term. No member of the Board shall serve for more than two (2) regular terms. Any vacancy occurring within the term of a member due to resignation, conviction of any kind, disability or death, shall be filled by appointment by the President of the Philippines; and such member appointed shall serve for the unexpired portion of the term vacated without prejudice to serve for a maximum of two (2) full terms. If the appointee comes from the incumbent Board, he shall serve the remaining vacated term in addition to the previous years he had already served and shall be qualified for reappointment in his new position: Provided, his number of years of service shall not exceed two (2) regular full terms.

Each member of the Board shall take his oath of office prior to the official performance of his duties.




Section 7. Compensation and Allowances of the Board Members. – The Chairman and members of the Board shall receive compensation and allowances comparable to the compensation and allowances being received by the Chairmen and members of existing regulatory boards with the Commission and as may be provided for in the General Appropriations Act.

Section 8. Supervision of the Board, Custodian of it Records, Secretariat and Support Services. – The Board shall be under the general supervision of the Commission. All records of the Board, including application for examination, examination papers and results, minutes of deliberation, administrative cases, and other investigative cases involving the profession shall be kept by the Commission. The Commission shall designate the secretary of the Board and shall provide the Secretariat and other support services to implement the provisions of this Act.

Section 9. Power and Duties of the Board. – The Board shall exercise the following specific powers, functions, duties and responsibilities:

(a) To promulgate and adopt the rules and regulations necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Act;

(b) To supervise the registration, licensure and practice of mechanical engineers in the Philippines;

(c) To administer oaths in connection with the successful examinees entering the practice of Mechanical Engineering;

(d) To issue the certificate of registration to successful examinees;

(e) To issue, suspend and/or revoke, after due process certificates of registration and issue, cancel and suspend professional license or cancel special permits for the practice of mechanical engineering, for causes provided by law;

(f) To adopt an official seal of the Board;

(g) To look into the conditions affecting the practice of the mechanical engineering profession and whenever necessary, adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the enhancement and maintenance of high professional and ethical standards of the profession;

(h) To prescribe and/or adopt a Code of Ethical and Professional Standards for the practice of the mechanical engineering profession.

(i) To hear and try administrative cases involving violations of this Act, its Implementing Rules and Regulations, the Code of Ethics for Mechanical Engineers, and for this purpose, to issue subpoena andsubpoena duces tecum to secure the appearance of witnesses and the production of documents in connection therewith;

(j) Prescribe guidelines in the Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program in coordination with accredited association of mechanical engineers;

(k) Prepare, adopt, issue or amend the syllabi of the subjects for examinations;

(l) Approve, issue, limit or revoke temporary license to practice mechanical engineering; and

(m) Discharge such other duties and functions as may be deemed necessary for the enhancement of the mechanical engineering profession and the upgrading, development and growth of mechanical engineering education in the Philippines.

Section 10. Annual Report. – The Board shall, at the close of each calendar year, submit an annual report to the President of the Philippines through the Professional Regulation Commission, giving a detailed account of its proceedings and accomplishments during the year and making recommendations for the adoption of measures that will upgrade and improve the conditions affecting the practice of mechanical engineering in the Philippines.

Section 11. Removal of Board Member. – The President upon recommendation of the Commission may remove any member of the Board on the following grounds; neglect of duty or incompetence, violation or tolerance of the violation of this Act or the Code of Ethics for Mechanical Engineering, final judgment of crimes involving moral turpitude, after having given the member an opportunity to be heard and/or defend himself in a proper administrative investigation.

Monday, November 2, 2009

ME LAWS: REPUBLIC ACT 8495 Part 1 (Article I)






Just a refresher for anyone who might not be familiar with the law that governs the practice of Mechanical Engineering in the Philippines.


Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines

Metro Manila

Tenth Congress

February 12, 1998


Republic Act No. 8495

AN ACT REGULATING THE PRACTICE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN THE PHILIPPINES

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled::



ARTICLE I


TITLE, STATEMENT OF POLICY AND DEFINITION OF TERMS


Section 1. Title. – This Act stall be known as the "Philippine Mechanical Engineering Act of 1998."

Section 2. Statement of Policy. – The State recognizes the importance of mechanical engineers in nation building and development. Their talents through sustainable human development shall be promoted. Thus, the State shall develop and nurture competent, virtuous, productive and well-rounded mechanical engineers whose standard of professional practice and service shall be excellent, qualitative, world-class and globally competitive through regulatory measures, programs and activities.




Section 3. Definition of Terms. – As used in this Act, the following terms shall mean as follows:


(a) Practice of Mechanical Engineering – A person shall be deemed to be practicing mechanical engineering or rendering mechanical engineering service within the meaning and intent of this Act when he performs the following:

(1) Consultation, valuation, investigation and management services requiring mechanical engineering knowledge;

(2) Engineering design, preparation of plans, specifications and projects studies or estimates for mechanical equipment, machinery, or processes of any mechanical works, projects or plants;

(3) Management or supervision of the erection installation, alteration, testing and commissioning of mechanical equipment, machinery, or processes in mechanical works, projects or plants;

(4) Management, supervision, operation, tending or maintenance of any mechanical equipment, machinery or processes in mechanical work, projects or plants;

(5) Management or supervision of the manufacture, sale, supply or distribution of mechanical equipment, parts or components;

(6) Teaching of mechanical engineering professional subjects in government recognized and accredited engineering schools; and

(7) Employment in government as a professional mechanical engineer, registered mechanical engineer, or certified plant mechanic if the nature and character of his work is in line with his profession, requiring professional knowledge of the science of mechanical engineering.


(b) Mechanical equipment or machinery. – includes all prime movers such as steam engines and turbines, internal combustion engines and gas engines and turbines; steam generators such as boiler; furnaces; heat exchanger such as cooling towers, kilns and dryers, coolers and heaters; materials handling equipment, such as pumps, cranes, conveyors, hoists, elevators, escalators, mechanized dumb-waters, moving ramps and walkways; heating, air-conditioning, ventilating, and refrigeration equipment and machinery, including compressors and centrifugal fans, mechanical pollution abatement and environmental control system; piping system with a working pressure of not less than 70 kpa., fired and unfired pressure vessels, printing machine; mechanical working machines for metallic and non-metallic materials and other mechanical equipment and machinery whether installed on land, underground, or on board watercraft.


(c) Mechanical processes, works, projects or plants shall include stem plants, geothermal plants, dendro-thermal plants, nuclear plants, ocean thermal energy conservation (OTEC) plants, internal combustion plants hydraulic plants, pumping plants, compressed gas plants, all kinds of mills, shops, factories, shipyards dry docks, heating, air-conditioning, ventilating and refrigeration plants containing any mechanical equipment machinery or process deriving power from steam, fossil fuels, wind, air, gas, water, solar heat, nuclear energy, ocean waves and tides, or other energy sources.


(d) Capacity of process works, project or plant-rated capacity in kilowatt of mechanical works, projects or plants for the purpose of this Act shall be the total kilowatt rating of all engines, motors, boilers, turbines, or other prime movers installed for use in such works, projects or plants, whether in operation or not, and without regard to the number of capacities of the mechanical equipment, machinery or processes receiving power from or intended to be driven by such prime movers.

Friday, October 23, 2009

Mechanical Engineering REVIEW CENTERS in the Philippines






The following are the addresses and contact numbers of some review centers in Metro manila and Cebu City offering review classes in Mechanical Engineering.



Alcorcon Engineering Review Center-Manila

4th Floor, Anacleta Building, 891 Galicia Street, Corner Espana Blvd., Sampaloc, Manila

Tel No. (02) 742-5600


Alcorcon Engineering Review Center - Cebu

4th Floor, Villa Campa-Capuras Building, Sanciangko Street, Cebu City

Tel No. (032) 254-3384




Linx Engineering Review Center

2nd Floor CMFFI Old Bldg., 815 R. Papa St., Sampaloc, Manila

tel No. 7368670


CDTC Review Center

Dona Amparo Bldg, G. Tolentino St, cor Espana Blvd., Sampaloc, Manila


MERIT Review Center

2nd Floor, San Jose Bldg. Cor. Espana & P. Campa Sts., Sampaloc, Metro Manila


Prime Review Center

Rm 401-404 GMT Bldg., cor Junquera and P. Del Rosario Sts.,Cebu City

tel No.(032) 416-8175




maps courtesy of www.openstreetmap.org
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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

CHOOSING A USEFUL PROJECT STUDY






Most universities and colleges in the Philippines are requiring students to conduct a final project study or thesis before they could graduate. For mechanical engineering students, however, one of the common trends is to design a machine and prototype it. Well, there’s nothing wrong about prototype projects. But what usually happen is the machine ends up in the warehouse. Rusting and decaying. The project that the students have invested in a lot of time, money and effort just ended up useless.




Well, if you’re intention is just to pass the subject, well maybe you don’t have to think about it. But if you want to have a project that will make you graduate and at the same time can be very useful, think more ideas.

There are some tips on how to have a useful project study.
...and moving mechanisms, machines, and robots.Image via Wikipedia

Tip #1
A utility machine that can be used in the school

Yes, the most practical thing is to design something that will benefit the university. A good example is with regards to waste management design, a compactor of trash. Whether it’s mechanically driven or not will depend on your choice. Another idea is to design laboratory equipment for testing or demo purpose. For example, design a gear train that can serve as demo equipment for the students in machine design.




Tip #2
Non-Prototype Project Study

In most schools, project study doesn’t necessarily need a working prototype. Aside from the fact that it’s really hard to design and build a machine in one year, it’s very expensive. The components are specially produced so each part cost a lot. I would admit that I fell in the same trap when I made my project study. As a team, we spent almost forty thousand pesos for that project study. The sad thing is that it’s there on the school rusting and useless.

Why not have project like a research on a particular topic? One good example is the optimization of air conditioning ducts using software.
Mechanical engineers design and build engines ...Image via Wikipedia

Tip #3
A Sponsored Project

Sometimes the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) sponsor some project studies. One good example is when the concept of biodiesel was at the peak of its popularity they sponsored projects of selected student groups. Among these is the mechanical extraction of biodiesel from Jatropa (tuba-tuba) plant.

When your project is sponsored, you can have the benefits like less expenses and access to the government owned research laboratories. If your project is good enough, you can even profit from it when the government or someone decides to buy it.
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Monday, October 19, 2009

Mechanical Engineer Board Exam Result October 2009






The professional Regulations comission (PRC) announces, after only one working day, the results of October 2009 Mechanical Engineering Board Examination. Out of 2322 examinees, roughly 60.5% or 1404 passed the said examination.This is by far, one of the highest passing percentages in the history of mechanical engineer board exam.




The following are the list of examinees who garnered the 10 highest scores.

1. Radino Encaya Estoria, Technological University of the Philippines (TUP-Manila) - 89.35%
2. Cesar Minorias Baron Jr, University of Cebu - 88.80%
3. Marcelo Casquejo Santillan, Bicol University - Legazpi - 88.55%
4. Mark Cecil Mirasol Tano, Cebu Institute of Technology - 87.80%
5. Christopher Magnaye Requinto, Batangas State University- Batangas City - 87.75%
6. Dale Bryan Raiz Pacheco, Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology - 87.40%
7. Christopher Beunavente Sanchez, Bicol University - Legazpi - 87.20%
8. Jan Derrick Hernandez Nidar, University of the Philippines - Diliman - 87.15%
9. Michael Ernani Arce Andres, University of the Philippines - Diliman - 87.05%
10. Ian Wildon Auino Dizon, University of the East - Caloocan - 86.85%

For complete list of passers please follow this LINK.
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Thursday, August 27, 2009

Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Questions Part 4






Source: Machinery's Handbook
Topic: Materials and Processes




1.______is a number indicating how many times a certain volume of a material is heavier than an equal volume of water
a.specific ratio
b.density
c.Specific gravity
d.Avogadro's Number

2._______an instrument for determining the density of liquids, provided with graduations made to an arbitrary scale
a.hygrometer
b.hydrometer
c.weighing scale
d.sphygmomanometer

3. Stainless steels generally contain at least _______ chromium, with or without other elements
a.40%
b.30%
c.20%
d.10%

4.______ is type of stainless steel that is nonmagnetic in the annealed condition, although some may become slightly magnetic after cold working
a.austenitic
b.hematite
c.martensitic
d.ferritic

5. ______ grades of stainless steel are always magnetic and contain chromium but no nickel.
a.austenitic
b.hematite
c.martensitic
d.ferritic




6. _______ grades of stainless steel are magnetic and can be hardened by quenching and tempering.
a.austenitic
b.hematite
c.martensitic
d.ferritic

7.The steel is heated to a temperature above the critical range, after which it is cooled in still air to produce a generally fine pearlite structure. The purpose is to promote
uniformity of structure and properties after a hot-working operation such as forging or extrusion.
a. Stress Relieving
b. Spheroidize Annealing
c. Annealing
d. Normalizing

8. This process reduces internal stresses, caused by machining, cold working, or welding, by heating the steel to a temperature below the critical range and holding it there long enough to equalize the temperature throughout the piece.
a. Stress Relieving
b. Spheroidize Annealing
c. Annealing
d. Normalizing

9. This is a special form of annealing that requires prolonged heating at an appropriate temperature followed by slow cooling in order to produce globular carbides, a structure desirable for machining, cold forming, or cold drawing, or for the effect it will have on subsequent heat treatment.
a. Stress Relieving
b. Spheroidize Annealing
c. Annealing
d. Normalizing

10. The steel is heated to a temperature above or within the critical range, then cooled at a predetermined slow rate (usually in a furnace) to produce a coarse pearlite structure. This treatment is used to soften the steel for improved machinability; to improve or restore ductility for subsequent forming operations; or to eliminate the residual stresses and microstructural effects of cold working.
a. Stress Relieving
b. Spheroidize Annealing
c. Annealing
d. Normalizing
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Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Questions Part 3






Source: Machinery's Handbook
Topic: Strength of Materials, Springs and Wire Ropes


Answers in RED.

1. These washer type springs can sustain relatively large loads with small deflections, and the loads and deflections can be increased by stacking the springs.
a. Volute springs
b. Torsion bars
c. Belleville
d. Flat springs

2. These springs are often used on army tanks and heavy field artillery, and seldom find additional uses because of their high cost, long production time, difficulties in manufacture, and unavailability of a wide range of materials and sizes
a. Volute springs
b. Torsion bars
c. Belleville
d. Flat springs

3. These springs are often used to overcome operating space limitations in various products such as electric switches and relays.
a. Volute springs
b. Torsion bars
c. Belleville
d. Flat springs

4.The ______ of a wire rope is the direction of the helical path in which the strands are laid and, similarly, the lay of a strand is the direction of the helical path in which the wires are laid.
a. lay
b. Strand Construction
c. stranding
d. ley

5. In ______, the wires and strands are laid in the same direction.
a. regular lay
b. alternate lay
c. lang lay
d. double lay


6. In a wire rope designation 6 X 7, the first number stand for.
a. nominal diameter of the wire rope (in mm)
b. diameter of each strand (in mm)
c. wires per strand,
d. number of strands

7. 6 X 7 class of wire rope is also known as...
a.Standard Hoisting Rope
b.Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope
c.Standard Coarse Laid Rope
d. Special Flexible Hoisting Rope

8. 6 X 19 class of wire rope is also known as...
a.Standard Hoisting Rope
b.Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope
c.Standard Coarse Laid Rope
d. Special Flexible Hoisting Rope

9. 8 X 19 class of wire rope is also known as...
a.Standard Hoisting Rope
b.Extra Flexible Hoisting Rope
c.Standard Coarse Laid Rope
d. Special Flexible Hoisting Rope

10. _____ type of wire rope core is used for small ropes such as sash cord and aircraft cord.
a. Asbestos cores
b. Fiber
c. Cotton
d. wire-strand core

Thursday, August 20, 2009

Mechanical Engineering Board Exam Questions Part 2






Mechanical Board Exam Questions from Machinery's Handbook.
Topic: Machine Design : Strength of Materials


1.______ is the amount by which a dimension of a body changes when the body is subjected to a load, divided by the original value of the dimension
a. stress
b. unit strain
c. modulus of resilience
d. modulus of elasticity

2.______is the maximum stress to which a test specimen may be subjected and still
return to its original length upon release of the load.
a. elastic limit
b. rupture point
c. yield point
d. elastic limit

3. _______ is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension or compression.
a. Modulus of Elasticity
b. Modulus of Resilience
c. Strain
d. unit strain

4._______is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain for a given material
subjected to uniform longitudinal stresses within the proportional limit.
a. Poisson's ratio
b. unit stress
c. strain
d. Young's modulus of elasticity

5._______is the maximum stress that can be applied without permanent deformation of the test specimen.
a.Yield Strength
b. Yield Point
c. Utimate Strength
d. Rupture strength


6. _______ is the ratio of unit stress to unit strain within the proportional limit of a material in shear.
a. Modulus of Elasticity
b. Modulus of Resilience
c. Modulus of Rigidity
d. Young's Modulus

7. When strain cycling is produced by a fluctuating temperature field, the failure process is termed _____.
a. Thermal Fatigue
b. Corrosion Fatigue
c. Surface or Contact Fatigue
d. Creep

8. ______ is the ratio of length l of the column in inches divided by the least radius of gyration r of the cross-section.
a. Poisson's ratio
b. slenderness ratio
c. strain
d. Modulus of elasticity

9.Rankine formula for colunms is also known as...
a. Straight line formula
b. Gordon's Formula
c. secant formula
d. Euler's Formula

10. This is the most widely used of all spring materials for small springs operating at temperatures up to about 250F.
a.Music Wire
b.Oil-Tempered MB Grade
c.Oil-Tempered HB Grade
d.Hard-Drawn MB Grade

11.This general-purpose spring steel is commonly used for many types of coil springs where the cost of music wire is prohibitive and in sizes larger than are available in music wire.
a.Music Wire
b.Oil-Tempered MB Grade
c.Oil-Tempered HB Grade
d.Hard-Drawn MB Grade

12.This grade is used for general-purpose springs where cost is the most important factor.
a.Music Wire
b.Oil-Tempered MB Grade
c.Oil-Tempered HB Grade
d.Hard-Drawn MB Grade

13. This alloy, the first constant-modulus alloy used for
hairsprings in watches, is an austenitic alloy hardened only by cold-drawing and cold-rolling.
a.Elinvar
b.Elgiloy
c.Dynavar
d.Ni-Span C

14.This spring service is for 1,000 to 10,000 deflections.
a.Severe Service
b.Light Service
c.Average Service
d.Extra Light Service

15.______ is the highest stress, or range of stress, in pounds per square inch that can be repeated indefinitely without failure of the spring.
a. Endurance Strength
b. Endurance limit
c. Elastic Limit
d. Proportional Limit

More questions to come from Machinery's Handbook. Always visit this site for regular updates or subscribe on a reader or through email.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE—Root Cause Analysis






During college, we solve a lot of problems. Mathematics, physics, machine design and thermodynamics were just a few examples. The good thing about these problems is that usually:




1. All needed information and parameters were given. All you have to do is to solve it using formulas and equations.

2. We are sure that the question has an answer.

Newton's dynamical equations.Image via Wikipedia


3. When you already find the correct answer, the problem is done.

That’s the good thing about solving problems theoretically. But when it comes to the actual work, everything is completely different. Some actual problems in the work are:

PIPING: “the pressure on a particular pipe is usually high”

MANUFACTURING: “the dimension of the parts coming out of the machine is off-spec”

FARMING: “the crops do not yield good fruits.”

EDUCATION: “the students’ score dropped dramatically”

In contrast to college problems, actual work problem are one or all of the following.

1. There’s none or insufficient information or parameters known. The “given” or parameters were all part of the problem itself. You have to conduct research and tests to find out the important parameters to be considered.

2. Sometimes, there are problems that has no answer or nearly impossible to answer.

3. Finding the answer to a specific question will lead to more questions and will reveal the complexity of the problem you once thought to be simple.


Root Cause Analysis



One common error in problem solving is trying to solve the effect rather than the root cause. The root cause is different from just an ordinary “cause” because the latter can also be on itself, an effect of a deeper cause. Digging into the base or the root of the problem is what refered to as root cause analysis. Solving just the effect is a waste of time because the real source of the problem is not fixed. The effect will keep on coming back or will just take another form. Solving just the effect is like curing a symptom rather than the true disease.

An icon from the Crystal icon theme.Image via Wikipedia


Root cause determination is the first step before thinking of solving a particular problem. In some cases, the problem is so complex that it already branched out to many sub issues. This makes root cause determination even more difficult.



Good thing to know that there are many techniques to ease the process of root cause analysis. On the next article, we will discuss two of the known techniques used in solving tough problems. They are:

Cycle diagram of the D6 groupImage via Wikipedia


Fishbone Diagram and 5 Why’s

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